Another early contributor to epidemiology was John Graunt, a London haberdasher and councilman who published a landmark analysis of mortality data in 1662. Department of Medical Informatics and Clinical Epidemiology timeline 1980s – NLM Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems (IAIMS) grant awarded to OHSU. Hippocrates (500 BC). In: Teutsch SM, Churchill RE, editors. Hippocrates. He then tested his hypothesis with a more rigorously designed study, ensuring that the groups to be compared were comparable. This photograph is a redrawing of John Snow’s original map showing the locations where people died from cholera in the Golden Square area of London in 1854. Table 1.1 Mortality from Cholera in the Districts of London Supplied by the Southwark and Vauxhall and the Lambeth Companies, July 9–August 26, 1854. According to David Morens (Epidemiology Monitor, February 1999: 4), epidemic investigations prior to the middle of that century were mostly descriptive, rather than etiologic in orientation. This publication was the first to quantify patterns of birth, death, and disease occurrence, noting disparities between males and females, high infant mortality, urban/rural differences, and seasonal variations. In the 1930s and 1940s, epidemiologists extended their methods to noninfectious diseases. Meanwhile, infectious diseases continued to challenge epidemiologists as new infectious agents emerged (Ebola virus, Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/ Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)), were identified (Legionella, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)), or changed (drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Avian influenza). At that time, most investigators focused on acute infectious diseases. He noted with curiosity, however, that no cases of cholera had occurred in a two-block area just to the east of the Broad Street pump. However, its historical development spanned centuries, in a process that was slow and unsteady and aided by the contributions of many individuals. Snow J. Adding to the human and economic costs are chronic sequelae associated with C. jejuni infection—Guillian-Barré syndrome and reactive arthritis. John Graunt was born in London in 1620. Epidemiology: A Timeline Edward Jenner (1749-1823). We first describe the common “prehistory” of these two disciplines in the early nineteenth century, and then describe Thus, with no knowledge of the existence of microorganisms, Snow demonstrated through epidemiologic studies that water could serve as a vehicle for transmitting cholera and that epidemiologic information could be used to direct prompt and appropriate public health action. The highest number of deaths occurred in Europe from 1346-1352 and wiped out 20-30 million people. Kannel WB. In these districts, Snow identified the water supply company for every house in which a death from cholera had occurred during the 7-week period. Epidemiology’s roots are nearly 2,500 years old. History of Epidemiology Epidemiology originates from Hippocrates’ observation more than 2000 years ago that environmental factors influence the occurrence of disease. (5) He began his investigation by determining where in this area persons with cholera lived and worked. (5), William Farr built upon Graunt’s work by systematically collecting and analyzing Britain’s mortality statistics. An X indicates the locations of various water pumps. One of the most significant epidemiological events in history was bubonic plague (also known as the Black Death) during the Middle Ages, from around the years 500-1450. Evidence-based decisions founded on epidemiological data have been at the forefront of public health policy in recent decades. Principles of epidemiology, 2nd ed. The Department's history is rich and varied; its landmark events begin with the appointment of Dr. Wade Hampton Frost as resident lecturer and head of the newly formed Epidemiology Department in September 1919. Ignaz Semmelweis. A Timeline of Historical Pandemics. Over a 7-week period during the summer of 1854, Snow compared cholera mortality among districts that received water from one or the other or both water companies. (8) This was an achievement in applied epidemiology of unprecedented proportions. Subsequently, Allan Donner became an international name in … Please let us know, centennial@hsph.harvard.edu. Description: Photo of the John Snow Pub. J Atheroscler Thromb 2000;6:60-6. Get exclusive access to content from our … Today’s visualization outlines some of history’s most deadly pandemics, from the Antonine Plague to the current COVID-19 event. This data helps epidemiologists to study diseases and environmental influences across populations. Percivall Pott began to make the correlation between a chronic exposure to soot and a high incidence of scrotal cancer in chimney sweeps. Robert Koch (1843-1910 John Snow (1813-1888). Epidemiology: the history of disease and epidemics (Part I, pre-20th Century) Epidemiology: the history of disease and epidemics (Part II, post-20th Century) Robert Koch: how he identified one of the 19th Century’s biggest killers; 10 key scientists in our understanding of disease; The experiment that proved bacteria caused disease In: Teutsch SM, Churchill RE, editors man-made hazardous materials characterization of the most commonly bacterial. 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