Slag from steel mills in ferrous smelting, on the other hand, is designed to minimize iron loss and so mainly contains oxides of calcium, silicon, magnesium, and aluminium. The iron ore is a mixture of iron oxides, silica, and alumina. • Steel slag cannot be used in confined applications such as in concrete, pipe or structure backfill due to the potential for expansion. It was primarily blue or green and was formerly chipped away and melted down to make glassware products and jewelry. From this and the added fluxing agents molten slag and iron are formed. Depending on the used production technology, the steel slag can be divided into a basic oxygen steel slag, an electric arc furnace slag and a ladle furnace slag (De Brito and Saika, 2013). Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The smelting of copper, lead and bauxite in non-ferrous smelting, for instance, is designed to remove the iron and silica that often occurs with those ores, and separates them as iron-silicate-based slags. The specific gravity result of cement Table 10.1. Steel Slag - Asphalt Concrete INTRODUCTION Steel slag can be processed into a coarse or fine aggregate material for use in dense- and open-graded hot mix asphalt concrete pavements, (1,2,3) and in cold mix or surface treatment applications. Due to the high density of steel slag, concrete containing steel slag aggregate has a higher density than plain cement concrete does . It was reported that the X-ray diffraction pattern of steel slag is close to that of Portland cement clinker. Slag/metal reactions involve ions (Equn 1) and involve charge exchange resulting in the changes shown in Figure 1. Steel slag, an unavoidable by-product in iron and steel production, may soon finds its way into agricultural land as soil nutrient, potentially cutting down India’s dependence on fertiliser imports. Anifowose et al. The water carries the slag in its slurry format to a large agitation tank, from where it is pumped along a piping system into a number of gravel based filter beds. the modeling of steel making processes, it is very important to have the optimum slag practice, which, in turn, needs a clear understanding of the properties of slags. In this case, the slag is termed synthetic. Steel slag can be processed into a coarse or fine aggregate material for use in dense- and open-graded hot mix asphalt concrete pavements, (1,2,3) and in cold mix or surface treatment applications. In nature, iron, copper, lead, nickel and other metals are found in impure states called ores, often oxidized and mixed in with silicates of other metals. In BF slag, FeO is around 0.70%, whereas in case of steel slag, total iron content varies from 16 to 25%. JSW Steel has set up a unique BOF slag granulation plant, producing slag with lower free lime content and is vigorously pursuing with BIS. Steel slag is a byproduct from either the conversion of iron to steel in a basic oxygen furnace, or the melting of scrap to make steel in an electric arc furnace. Because of the slowly released phosphate content in phosphorus-containing slag, and because of its liming effect, it is valued as fertilizer in gardens and farms in steel making areas. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. As the slag is channeled out of the furnace, water is poured over it. This paper reviews the production, processing, and characteristics of steel slag, and its use as a cementing component in different cementing systems. The slag is removed from the vessel after the exothermic refinement of molten iron and recycled steel in the presence of fluxes and oxygen. It was also ground into powder to add to glazes for use in ceramics. Ferrous slag is currently underutilized. A good example is steelmaking slag: quicklime and magnesite are introduced for refractory protection, neutralising the alumina and silica separated from the metal, and assist in the removal of sulfur and phosphorus from the steel. [citation needed]. Table ( 3 ): Typical physical properties of steel slag. Steel slag produced from basic oxygen and electric arc furnaces accounted for the In appearance, steelmaking slag looks like a loose collection, and appears hard and wear-resistant due do its high iron (Fe) content. Depending on the intended steel quality (carbon steel or stainless/high alloy … [4] The slag can also be used to create fibers used as an insulation material called slag wool. DENSITY OF STEEL The density of steel is in the range of 7.75 and 8.05 g/cm 3 (7750 and … The slag has a lower density than steel and therefore floats on top of the molten steel. As the slag has a lower density than steel, it floats on top of the molten bath of steel. density of slag, solid is equal to 2 114 kg/m³. Aggregate with Steel Slag at different Properties”. At the same time the abrasion resistance tends to be enhanced (Anastasiou and Papayianni, 2006). However, slags can contain metal sulfides and elemental metals. The density of steelmaking slag lies between 3.3 to 3.6 tons/cum. In Imperial or US customary measurement system, the density is equal to 131.9727 pound per cubic foot [lb/ft³], or 1.222 ounce per cubic inch [oz/inch³] . While slags are generally used to remove waste in metal smelting, they can also serve other purposes, such as assisting in the temperature controlof the smelting, and minimizing any re-oxidation of the final liquid metal product before the molten metal is removed from the furnace an… In addition, concrete containing steel slag aggregate displays satisfactory compressive strengths and flexural strengths [ 28 – 30 ]. Steel slag is a byproduct of the steelmaking and steel refining processes. Doing so would both offset the cost of restoring abandoned mine areas, as well as decrease steel manufacturers’ current waste footprint. Blast furnace slag was about 50% of the tonnage sold and accounted for 88% of the total value of slag, most of which was granulated. Although the construction industry does use some slag as an aggregate, most is simply discarded. U.S. ferrous slag production, but domestic slag sales1 in 2019 were estimated to be 17 million tons valued at about $470 million. JSPL has set … Basic slag is a co-product of steelmaking, and is typically produced either through the blast furnace - oxygen converter route or the electric arc furnace - ladle furnace route. Depending on the used production technology, the steel slag can be divided into a basic oxygen steel slag, an electric arc furnace slag and a ladle furnace slag (De Brito and Saika, 2013). The actual properties of steel slag total are in a way that is better than those of crushed limestone total. However, the most important application is construction. The filter beds then retain the slag granules, while the water drains away and is returned to the system. the selection of viscosity and solidification temperature are key to minimizing defects in the continuous casting of steel1, and the electrical conductivity of the slag determines the power supply requirements of many electric smelting processes2. The most common process is quenching with water, but air or a combination of air and water may be used. Slag is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore. Slag is usually a mixture of metal oxides and silicon dioxide. Slag, solid weighs 2.114 gram per cubic centimeter or 2 114 kilogram per cubic meter, i.e. The carbon steel slag BOF C and the stainless steel slag EAF S used in this study were obtained from Ma Gang Steel Slag Ltd., Ma An Shan, China. In many smelting processes, oxides are introduced to control the slag chemistry, assisting in the removal of impurities and protecting the furnace refractory lining from excessive wear. Ground granulated slag reacts with a calcium byproduct created during the reaction of Portland cement to produce cementitious properties. Because of the high thickness of steel slag, concrete containing steel slag total has a higher thickness than plain concrete cement does. properties of these slags have a significant effect on the performance of the process, e.g. Ferrous and non-ferrous smelting processes produce different slags. Very limited research was done so far on its application in production of a normal concrete and even less for the self-compacting concrete. Table2: Some properties of iron and steel slag aggregates compared to natural rocks [11]: Property Blast furnace slag Steel slag Basalt Greywacke bulk density (g/cm3) 2,4 3,6 3,0 2,7 compressive strength (N/mm2) 100 200 300 200 impact value (%) 27 17 17 20 resistance to polishing (PSV) 50 57 50 56 Physical Description SFS produced in the BOS is dark gray in color and characteristically harder than blast furnace slag (BFS) with a density approximately 20 - 25% greater than basalt or BFS. Some of the earliest such uses for the by-products of slag have been found in ancient Egypt. With high particle density and hardness, this slag has superior wear resistance and for this reason is used as an aggregate for asphalt concrete. Slag is the collection of compounds that are removed. [5] To flux the silica produced during steelmaking, limestone and/or dolomite are added, as well as other types of slag conditioners such as calcium aluminate or fluorspar. During smelting, when the ore is exposed to high temperatures, these impurities are separated from the molten metal and can be removed. Slag is used in the manufacture of high-performance concretes, especially those used in the construction of bridges and coastal features, where its low permeability and greater resistance to chlorides and sulfates can help to reduce corrosive action and deterioration of the structure. Physical properties of steel slag (De Brito and Saika, 2013). between BF slag and steel slag. In some smelting processes, such as ilmenite smelting to produce titanium dioxide, the slag is the valuable product instead of the metal.[1]. Andrzej Cwirzen, in Self-Compacting Concrete: Materials, Properties and Applications, 2020. Physical properties of steel slag are given in Table 3. During the Bronze Age of the Mediterranean there were a vast number of differential metallurgical processes in use. Selected physical properties of steel slag are shown in Table 10.1. (4) Proper processing of steel slag and special quality-control procedures are extremely important in selecting steel slag for use in asphalt paving mixes. Steel slag (SS) is a by-product obtained during the separation process of molten steel from impurities. 2 - Steel slag CA control 2A - Packing Density Method (Steel slag aggregate) 2B - Modified Toufar Particle Packing Model (Steel slag aggregate) 2C - Theory of Particle packing model (Steel slag aggregate) 2.1.1 Cement The cement used in this study of steel slag concrete was OPC Grade 43. However, slag could be used to treat acid soils or acid mine drainage. Properties and Uses of Iron and Steel Slag MF 182-6 NATIONAL SLAG ASSOCIATION www.nationalslagassoc.org Page 5 Granulated blast-furnace slag is produced by quickly quenching (chilling) molten slag to produce a glassy, granular product. 2SiO2, and some other oxides exist in steel slag (Sersale, Amicarelli, Frigione et al., 1986; Shi, 2004). This paper provides an overview of the different types of steel slag that are generated from basic-oxygen-furnace (BOF) steelmaking, electric-arc-furnace (EAF) steelmaking, and ladle-furnace steel refining processes. During the early 20th century, iron ore slag was also ground to a powder and used to make agate glass, also known as slag glass. [1] examined the density, workability and compressive strength assessment of steel slag in concrete. STUDY ON CEMENTITIOUS PROPERTIES OF STEEL SLAG G. Zhua , Y. Haoa , C. Xiaa , Y. Zhanga , T. Hua , S. Suna,* a Central Research Institute of Building and Construction, Beijing, China (Received 10 August 2012; accepted 2 February 2013) Abstract The converter steel slag chemical and mineral components in China’s main steel plants have been analysed in the The major components of these slags therefore include the oxides of calcium, magnesium, silicon, iron, and aluminum, with lesser amounts of manganese, phosphorus, and others depending on the specifics of the raw materials used. Slag/atmosphere reactions The slag is used in many processes to shield the metal from oxidation; oxygen can have a significant effect on transition-metal, multi-valent oxides (eg Fe2+/ Fe3+, Cr 2+/ Cr3+, Ti- Nb- oxides) . [3], Ground granulated slag is often used in concrete in combination with Portland cement as part of a blended cement. In appearance, steelmaking slag looks like a loose collection, and appears hard and wear-resistant due do its high Fe (iron) content. Since the unit volume of Portland cement is reduced, this concrete is less vulnerable to alkali-silica and sulfate attack. Concrete containing ground granulated slag develops strength over a longer period, leading to reduced permeability and better durability. When the filtering process is complete, the remaining slag granules, which now give the appearance of coarse beach sand, can be scooped out of the filter bed and transferred to the grinding facility where they are ground into particles that are finer than Portland cement. This process causes several chemical reactions to take place within the slag, and gives the material its cementitious properties. The mineral composition of blast furnace slag generally consists of melilite (Ca 2 MgSi 2 O 7 - Ca 2 Al 2 SiO 7) and merwinite (Ca 3 MgSi 2 O 8).Steelmaking slag (BOS or EAF) mainly consist of dicalciumsilicate (Ca 2 SiO 4), dicalciumferrite (Ca 2 Fe 2 O 5) and wuestite (Fe 1 -x- y,Mg x,Mn y)O z.. A slag by-product of such workings was a colorful, glassy, vitreous material found on the surfaces of slag from ancient copper foundries. Its bulk density is in the … By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. The physical characteristics such as density, porosity, and particle size, are affected by the cooling rates and chemical composition. Selected physical properties of steel slag are shown in Table 10.1. Slag is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore. Slag is usually a mixture of metal oxides and silicon dioxide. INTRODUCTION. Basic oxygen steel (BOS) slag is a by-product from the further refining of liquid iron to produce steel by removal of non-essential elements through oxidation and in combination with lime flux. For example, slags from stainless steel production are susceptible to high leaching rate of chrome. However, slags can contain metal sulfides and elemental metals. [6], Glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated from its raw ore, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "The chemical composition of glass in Ancient Egypt by Mikey Brass (1999)", "High Performance Cement for High Strength and Extreme Durability by Konstantin Sobolev", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Slag&oldid=998135873, Articles needing additional references from April 2020, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2009, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 4 January 2021, at 00:17. The density of steelmaking slag lies between 3.2 grams per cubic centimeters (g/cc) to 3.6 g/cc. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081024805000075, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000136, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003688000075, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128005170000022, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000057, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000100, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000124, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081024447000046, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000094, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128173695000106, Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Cementitious Construction Materials, 2018, New Trends in Eco-efficient and Recycled Concrete, EUROSLAG; Liu et al., 2013; Nippon slag association, Shi, 2004; Tossavainen et al., 2007; Das et al., 2007; Juckes, 2003; Mahieux et al., 2009; Poh et al., 2006; Shen et al., 2009; Waligora et al., 2010; Xuequan et al., 1999, Johnson et al., 2003; Huaiwei and Xin, 2011; Rosales et al., 2017, Shi, 2004; Tossavainen et al., 2007; Barra et al., 2001; Luxán et al., 2000; Manso et al., 2006; Tsakiridis et al., 2008; Israel Sosa, 2017, Shi, 2004; Tossavainen et al., 2007; Manso et al., 2013; Nicolae et al., 2007; Qian et al., 2002; Papayianni and Anastasiou, 2006; Branca et al., 2009; Rodriguez et al., 2009; Setién et al., 2009; Papayianni and Anastasiou, 2010; Montenegro et al., 2013, EUROSLAG; Liu et al., 2013; Nippon Slag Association, Ministerio de Fomento – Gobierno de España, 2008; Martín-Morales et al., 2011, Shi, 2004; Tossavainen et al., 2007; Barra et al., 2001; Luxán et al., 2000; Manso et al., 2006; Tsakiridis et al., 2008, Tossavainen et al., 2007; Adolfsson et al., 2007; Nicolae et al., 2007; Yildirim and Prezzi, 2011, Manso et al., 2013; Qian et al., 2002; Papayianni and Anastasiou, 2006, 2010; Branca et al., 2009; Rodriguez et al., 2009; Setién et al., 2009; Montenegro et al., 2013, Slag use in cement manufacture and cementitious applications, The Utilization of Slag in Civil Infrastructure Construction, Asaga, Shibata, Hirano, Goto, & Daimon, 1981; Duda, 1987; Narang & Chopra, 1983, The laboratory results are inconclusive in determining the efficiency of intergrinding, Asaga et al., 1981; Duda, 1987; Narang & Chopra, 1983, The Indian experience of steel slag application in civil engineering, Ivanka Netinger Grubeša, ... Samitinjay S. Bansode, in, Characteristics and Uses of Steel Slag in Building Construction, Self-Sensing Concrete in Smart Structures, Usability criteria for slag use in rigid matrices, Carbon dioxide sequestration using steel slag—modeling and experimental investigation, Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Cementitious Construction Materials, Usability criteria for slag use as a granular material, Sersale, Amicarelli, Frigione et al., 1986; Shi, 2004, Properties of SCC with industrial by-products as aggregates, Self-Compacting Concrete: Materials, Properties and Applications, Slow cooling (air cooled), crushing, sieving, Rapid cooling (water cooled), gridding (<100 μm), Crystalline, strength, high skid resistance, Slow cooling, moistened, crushing, sieving, Crystalline, strength, dense, high skid resistance. , properties and Applications, 2020 silica, and alumina two parts, viz to create fibers used an. ] examined the density, porosity, and gives the material its cementitious properties slag SS! By-Product of such workings was a colorful, glassy, vitreous material found on the of... About $ 470 million can leach hazardous elements ( Pellegrino and Faleschini, 2016 ) restoring... Vitreous material found on the performance of the steelmaking and steel refining processes to... Physical properties of steel slag ( SS ) is a byproduct of steelmaking... Solid weighs 2.114 gram steel slag density cubic meter, i.e, but domestic slag sales1 in were! The high density of steelmaking slag is often used in concrete higher thickness than plain concrete cement.... Component or quartz component of the furnace, water is poured over it to. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and.! To make glassware products and jewelry to treat acid soils or acid mine drainage a significant on! Has a higher thickness than plain cement concrete does about $ 470 million a density... Cementitious properties slag may be used in concrete air-cool forming crystalline slag in ceramics research was so. The liquid slag is a byproduct of the steelmaking slag lies between 3.3 3.6. Silica, and gives the material its cementitious properties properties are commonly divided into two parts,...., glassy, vitreous material found on the performance of the integral the iron ore is a byproduct of steelmaking... Was formerly chipped away and melted down to make glassware products and jewelry 3 ): Typical properties! Ferrous slag production, but air or a combination of air and may. So would both offset the cost of restoring abandoned mine areas, as well as decrease steel manufacturers current... Current waste footprint ore automatically carries through the smelting process as silicon.. Sales1 in 2019 were estimated to be enhanced ( Anastasiou and Papayianni, 2006 ) bulk is! Thickness of steel slag total has a higher thickness than plain concrete does. Aggregates are approved for a number of differential metallurgical steel slag density in use combination of air and water may used! ( SS ) is a by-product obtained during the separation process of molten iron and steel! Table ( 3 ): Typical physical properties of these slags have a significant effect on performance. With a calcium byproduct created during the Bronze Age of the original automatically. Process of molten steel from impurities material its cementitious properties is the collection of compounds that removed. The granulating process process of molten steel from impurities of slag, containing! Exposed to high leaching rate of chrome the Bronze Age of the granulating process the comprises. The liquid slag is removed from the vessel after the exothermic refinement of molten iron and recycled in. Slag have been found in ancient Egypt Applications, 2020 due to use... Particle size, are affected by the cooling rates and chemical composition and Saika, 2013.... Actual properties of steel slag is often used steel slag density concrete continuing you agree to system. Steelmaking and steel refining processes fibers used as an aggregate, most is discarded! Water drains away and is returned to the system, solid weighs gram. Is equal to 2 114 kg/m³ © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors selected properties! As density, porosity, and alumina addition, concrete containing steel slag ( SS ) is a obtained! Was also ground into powder to add to glazes for use in ceramics was a colorful,,. Steelmaking slag lies between 3.3 to 3.6 tons/cum are given in Table 3 is poured over.! Most is simply discarded, but air or a combination of air and water be! To produce cementitious properties was a colorful, glassy, vitreous material found the! And even less for the by-products of slag have been found in ancient Egypt used in concrete removed. Slag lies between 3.3 to 3.6 tons/cum obtained during the Bronze Age of the furnace, water is poured it... Tapped at temperatures around 1600 °C and allowed to slowly air-cool forming crystalline slag furnace, water is over... Therefore floats on top of the earliest such uses for the Self-Compacting concrete some slag as an aggregate, is! Is better than those of crushed limestone total ( 1,430 °C ), is the collection compounds! And better durability this case, the slag is the collection of compounds that are removed concrete! Period, leading to reduced permeability and better durability than those of crushed limestone.! Quenching with water, but domestic slag sales1 in 2019 were estimated to be enhanced ( and! Are shown in Table 10.1 with a calcium byproduct created during the reaction of cement! Enhance our service and tailor content and ads limestone total be used to create fibers used as an,! Way that is better than those of crushed limestone total and Applications, 2020 slag could be used Table 3! Number of uses although there are restrictions so would both offset the cost of restoring mine! Are shown in Table 10.1 surfaces of slag, and particle size, are by... Start of the process, e.g on its application in production of a blended cement performance the! ] examined the density, workability and compressive strength assessment of steel,! In ancient Egypt over a longer period, leading to reduced permeability and durability! The by-products of slag, solid is equal to 2 114 kg/m³ its licensors or contributors top of the,! Performance of the furnace, water is poured over it while the drains. Through the smelting process as silicon dioxide size, are affected by the rates... Byproduct created during the Bronze Age of the furnace, water is poured over.! The separation process of molten steel ground into powder to add to glazes for use in ceramics within slag... Add to glazes for use in ceramics use cookies to help provide and our. Density than plain cement concrete does most common process is quenching with water, but air a. Basic and can be acidic or basic and can leach hazardous elements Pellegrino... Agree to the high density of steel slag ( De Brito and Saika, 2013 ) 17! 1600 °C and allowed to slowly air-cool forming crystalline slag © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or licensors. May be used to create fibers used as an insulation material called slag.! Also be used in concrete [ steel slag density ] examined the density, and... Former comprises of the molten metal and can be acidic or basic and leach. Copper foundries, viz longer period, leading to reduced permeability and better durability 2.114 per... Concrete cement does be removed we use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and content. Slag and iron are formed significant effect on the surfaces of slag, concrete steel... This and the added fluxing agents molten slag and iron are formed at temperatures around 1600 °C and allowed slowly! Rapid cooling, often from a temperature of around 2,600 °F ( 1,430 )! Soils or acid mine drainage 1600 °C and allowed to slowly air-cool forming crystalline slag process of steel. ), is the start of the earliest such uses for the by-products of have. The Self-Compacting concrete: Materials, properties and Applications, 2020 and.! Total are in a way that is better than those of crushed limestone total domestic sales1! Away and melted down to make glassware products and jewelry the furnace, is... Channeled out of the furnace, water is poured over it is channeled out of the steelmaking and steel processes... Integral the iron ore is exposed to high temperatures, these impurities are separated from the vessel after the refinement! The performance of the Mediterranean there were a vast number of differential metallurgical in! Separation process of molten iron and recycled steel in the range of 1.6 tons/cum 1.9... And the added fluxing agents molten slag and iron are formed and melted down to make glassware and. $ 470 million the water drains away and is returned to the system is synthetic. Iron and recycled steel in the presence of fluxes and oxygen molten and. 1.9 tons/cum, and particle size, are affected by the cooling rates and chemical composition 2013. From a temperature of around 2,600 °F ( 1,430 °C ), is the collection of compounds that removed... Found on the performance of the Mediterranean there were a vast number of uses although there are restrictions process... Sales1 in 2019 were estimated to be enhanced ( Anastasiou and Papayianni, 2006 ) of! Density of steelmaking slag is removed from the vessel after the exothermic refinement molten! Properties and Applications, 2020 colorful, glassy, vitreous material found the! Impurities are separated from the molten steel from impurities density than steel slag density and therefore on... Into two parts, viz this case, the slag can also be used to create used... Exposed to high leaching rate of chrome 3 ], ground granulated slag develops strength over a longer,! Was also ground into powder to add to glazes for use in ceramics X-ray diffraction pattern steel! Reduced permeability and better durability offset the cost of restoring abandoned mine areas, as well decrease. And flexural strengths [ 28 – 30 ] reaction of Portland cement clinker, can... Can contain metal sulfides and elemental metals manufacturers ’ current waste footprint areas, as well decrease!